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 Медицинская библиотека / Раздел "Книги и руководства"

 Section 6: Anti-infective Drugs

Медицинская библиотека / Раздел "Книги и руководства" / Основные Лекарственные Средства - англ. (Essential Drugs) / Section 6: Anti-infective Drugs
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Section 6: Anti-infective Drugs

6.1 ANTHELMINTHICS

6.1.1 INTESTINAL ANTHELMINTHICS

albendazole chewable tablet, 400 mg

levamisole tablet, 50 mg, 150 mg

(as hydrochloride)

¤mebendazole chewable tablet, 100 mg, 500 mg

niclosamide chewable tablet, 500 mg

praziquantel tablet, 150 mg, 600 mg

pyrantel chewable tablet, 250 mg

(as embonate)

oral suspension, 50 mg

(as embonate)/ml

6.1.2 ANTIFILARIALS

diethylcarbamazine tablet, 50 mg, 100 mg

(dihydrogen citrate)

ivermectin scored tablet, 3 mg, 6 mg

Complementary drug

suramin sodium (B) (2, 7) powder for injection,

1 g in vial

6.1.3 ANTISCHISTOSOMALS AND OTHER ANTITREMATODE DRUGS

praziquantel tablet, 600 mg

triclabendazole tablet, 250 mg

Complementary drug

oxamniquine (C) (8) capsule, 250 mg

syrup, 250 mg/5 ml

6.2 ANTIBACTERIALS

6.2.1 BETA LACTAM DRUGS

¤amoxicillin capsule or tablet, 250 mg,

500 mg (anhydrous)

powder for oral suspension,

125 mg (anhydrous)/5 ml

ampicillin powder for injection, 500 mg,

1 g (as sodium salt) in vial

benzathine powder for injection,

benzylpenicillin 1.44 g benzylpenicillin

(= 2.4 million IU) in 5-ml vial

benzylpenicillin powder for injection,

600 mg (= 1 million IU),

3 g (= 5 million IU)

(sodium or potassium salt) in vial

¤ Example of a therapeutic group. Various drugs can serve as alternatives.

¤cloxacillin capsule, 500 mg, 1 g (as sodium salt)

powder for oral solution, 125 mg

(as sodium salt)/5 ml

powder for injection, 500 mg

(as sodium salt) in vial

phenoxymethylpenicillin tablet, 250 mg

(as potassium salt)

powder for oral suspension, 250 mg

(as potassium salt)/5 ml

procaine benzylpenicillin powder for injection,

1 g (= 1 million IU),

3 g (= 3 million IU) in vial

Restricted indications

¤amoxicillin + tablet, 500 mg + 125 mg

¤clavulanic acid (D)

ceftazidime (D) powder for injection, 250 mg

(as pentahydrate) in vial

¤ceftriaxone (D) powder for injection, 250 mg

(as sodium salt) in vial

imipenem + powder for injection, 250 mg

cilastatin (D) (as monohydrate) + 250 mg,

(as sodium salt)

500 mg (as monohydrate) +

500 mg in vial (as sodium salt)

6.2.2 OTHER ANTIBACTERIALS

¤chloramphenicol (7) capsule, 250 mg

oral suspension, 150 mg

(as palmitate)/5 ml

powder for injection, 1 g

(sodium succinate) in vial

¤ciprofloxacin tablet, 250 mg

(as hydrochloride)

¤doxycycline (5, 6) capsule or tablet,

100 mg (hydrochloride)

¤erythromycin capsule or tablet, 250 mg

(as stearate or ethyl succinate)

powder for oral suspension, 125 mg

(as stearate or ethyl succinate)

powder for injection, 500 mg

(as lactobionate) in vial

¤gentamicin (2, 4, 7, 11) injection, 10 mg, 40 mg

(as sulfate)/ml in 2-ml vial

¤metronidazole tablet, 200 – 500 mg

injection, 500 mg in 100-ml vial

suppository, 500 mg, 1 g

oral suspension, 200 mg

(as benzoate)/5 ml

nalidixic acid (8) tablet, 250 mg, 500 mg

nitrofurantoin (4, 8) tablet, 100 mg

spectinomycin (8) powder for injection, 2 g

(as hydrochloride) in vial

¤sulfadiazine (4) tablet, 500 mg

injection, 250 mg (sodium salt)

in 4-ml ampoule

¤sulfamethoxazole + tablet, 100 mg + 20 mg,

trimethoprim (4) 400 mg + 80 mg

oral suspension,

200 mg + 40 mg/5 ml

injection, 80 mg + 16 mg/ml

in 5-ml and 10-ml ampoule

trimethoprim (8) tablet, 100 mg, 200 mg

injection, 20 mg/ml

in 5-ml ampoule

Complementary drugs

chloramphenicol (C) oily suspension for injection,

0.5 g (as sodium succinate)/ml

in 2-ml ampoule

clindamycin (B) (8) capsule, 150 mg

injection, 150 mg

(as phosphate)/ml

Restricted indications

vancomycin (D) powder for injection 250 mg (as

hydrochloride) in vial

6.2.3 ANTILEPROSY DRUGS

clofazimine capsule, 50 mg, 100 mg

dapsone tablet, 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg

rifampicin capsule or tablet, 150 mg, 300 mg

6.2.4 ANTITUBERCULOSIS DRUGS

ethambutol (4) tablet, 100–400 mg

(hydrochloride)

isoniazid tablet, 100–300 mg

isoniazid + ethambutol (5) tablet, 150 mg + 400 mg

¤ Example of a therapeutic group. Various drugs can serve as alternatives.

Essential Drugs

pyrazinamide tablet, 400 mg

rifampicin capsule or tablet, 150 mg, 300 mg

rifampicin + tablet, 60 mg + 30 mg, 150 mg + 75 mg,

isoniazid (5) 300 mg + 150 mg

tablet, 60 mg + 60 mg, 150 mg + 150 mg

(for intermittent use 3 times weekly)

rifampicin + isoniazid + tablet,

pyrazinamide (5) 60 mg + 30 mg + 150 mg,

150 mg + 75 mg + 400 mg

tablet, 150 mg + 150 mg + 500 mg

(for intermittent use 3 times weekly)

rifampicin + isoniazid + tablet, 150 mg + 75 mg +

pyrazinamide + ethambutol 400 mg + 275 mg

streptomycin (4) powder for injection,

1 g (as sulfate) in vial

Complementary drug

thioacetazone + tablet, 50 mg + 100 mg,

isoniazid (A) (5, 7) 150 mg + 300 mg

Additional reserve antituberculosis drugs for the treatment

of drug-resistant tuberculosis should be used in

specialized centres only with WHO-recommended TB

control strategy, DOTS, and treatment programmes.

6.3 ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS

amphotericin B (4) powder for injection, 50 mg in vial

¤fluconazole capsule, 50 mg

injection, 2 mg/ml in vial

oral suspension, 50 mg/5-ml

griseofulvin (7) capsule or tablet, 125 mg, 250 mg

nystatin tablet, 100 000, 500 000 IU

lozenge, 100 000 IU

pessary, 100 000 IU

Complementary drugs

flucytosine (B) (4, 8) capsule, 250 mg

infusion, 2.5 g in 250 ml

potassium iodide (A) saturated solution

6.4 ANTIVIRAL DRUGS

6.4.1 ANTIHERPES DRUGS

aciclovir (8) tablet, 200 mg

powder for injection, 250 mg

(as sodium salt) in vial

6.4.2 ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS

Adequate resources and specialist oversight are a prerequisite

for the introduction of this class of drugs.

nevirapine (8) tablet, 200 mg

zidovudine (8) capsule, 100 mg, 250 mg

injection, 10 mg/ml in 20-ml vial

oral solution, 50 mg/5 ml

Drugs for treatment of HIV/AIDS include nucleoside

reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside

reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease

inhibitors (PIs). Zidovudine and nevirapine have been

shown to reduce or prevent mother-to-child transmission

of HIV infection. This is the only indication for which

they are included here. Single drug use with zidovudine,

except in pregnancy, is now regarded as obsolete because

of the development of resistance. Triple therapy is

beyond the budgets of most national drug programmes

and therefore HIV/AIDS treatment policies must be decided

at country or institutional level.

6.5 ANTIPROTOZOAL DRUGS

6.5.1 ANTIAMOEBIC AND ANTIGIARDIASIS

DRUGS

¤ diloxanide tablet, 500 mg (furoate)

¤metronidazole tablet, 200–500 mg

injection, 500 mg in 100-ml vial

oral suspension, 200 mg

(as benzoate)/5 ml

6.5.2 ANTILEISHMANIASIS DRUGS

¤meglumine antimoniate injection,

30%, equivalent to approx.

8.5% antimony, in 5-ml ampoule

pentamidine (5) powder for injection, 200 mg,

300 mg (isetionate) in vial

Complementary drug

amphotericin B (B) (4) powder for injection,

50 mg in vial

6.5.3 ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS

(a) FOR CURATIVE TREATMENT

¤chloroquine tablet, 100 mg, 150 mg

(as phosphate or sulfate)

syrup, 50 mg

(as phosphate or sulfate)/5 ml

injection, 40 mg (as hydrochloride,

phosphate or sulfate)/ml

in 5-ml ampoule

¤ Example of a therapeutic group. Various drugs can serve as alternatives.

Essential Drugs

primaquine tablet, 7.5 mg, 15 mg

(as diphosphate)

¤quinine tablet, 300 mg (as bisulfate or sulfate)

injection, 300 mg (as dihydrochloride)/ml

in 2-ml ampoule

Complementary drugs

¤doxycycline (B) (for use only in capsule or tablet,

combination with quinine) 100 mg (hydrochloride)

mefloquine (B) tablet, 250 mg (as hydrochloride)

¤sulfadoxine + tablet, 500 mg + 25 mg

pyrimethamine (B)

Restricted indications

artemether (D) injection, 80 mg/ml

in 1-ml ampoule

artesunate (D) tablet, 50 mg

(b) FOR PROPHYLAXIS

chloroquine tablet, 150 mg

(as phosphate or sulfate)

syrup, 50 mg (as phosphate

or sulfate)/5 ml

doxycycline capsule or tablet,

100 mg (hydrochloride)

mefloquine tablet, 250 mg (as hydrochloride)

proguanil (for use only in tablet, 100 mg

combination with chloroquine) (hydrochloride)

6.5.4 ANTIPNEUMOCYSTOSIS AND

ANTITOXOPLASMOSIS DRUGS

pentamidine (2) tablet, 200 mg, 300 mg

pyrimethamine tablet, 25 mg

sulfamethoxazole + injection, 80 mg + 16 mg/ml

trimethoprim in 5-ml and 10-ml ampoule

6.5.5 ANTITRYPANOSOMAL DRUGS

(a) AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS

melarsoprol (2) injection, 3.6% solution

pentamidine (2) powder for injection, 200 mg,

300 mg (isetionate) in vial

suramin sodium powder for injection, 1 g in vial

Complementary drug

eflornithine (C) injection, 200 mg (hydrochloride)/

ml in 100-ml bottles

(b) AMERICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS

benznidazole (7) tablet, 100 mg

nifurtimox (2, 8) tablet, 30 mg, 120 mg, 250 mg

6.6 INSECT REPELLENTS

diethyltoluamide topical solution, 50%, 75%




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